Grammar HELP! Student Handbook

Table of Contents

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Chapter 1    Nouns and Pronouns

Introduction to Nouns and Pronouns:
What is a noun? What is a pronoun?
Countable Nouns
Singular Countable Nouns
Plural Countable Nouns
Regular Plural Nouns
Irregular Plural Nouns
Non-Count Nouns
              Subject-Verb Agreement with Noncount Nouns
Noun Phrases
How to Quantify a Noun
              How to Quantify a Plural Countable Noun
              How to Quantify a Noncountable Noun
              How to Count a Noncountable Noun

Using a Noun to Modify Another Noun
Pronouns and Their Position in a Sentence
Subject Pronouns
Demonstrative Pronouns
Object Pronouns
Reflexive Pronouns
Pronoun/Noun Agreement
Pronouns and Improper Use of Double Negatives
Noun Clause

Chapter 2    Articles

Introduction to Articles: What is an Article?
Countable Nouns
Articles and Countable Nouns
The Singular Countable Noun: a and an
Singular Countable Nouns: the
Articles and Plural Countable Nouns
Plural Countable Nouns: No Article
Plural Countable Nouns: the
Articles and Noncountable Nouns
Non-Countable Nouns: No Article
Non-countable Nouns: the vs. no article
Special Cases
Names of -
              Languages and Nationalities    

Chapter 3    Verbs and Modals

Introduction to Verbs:  What Is a Verb?

Subject-Verb Agreement
Action Verbs vs. be Verbs
Simple Present Tense
              Simple Present Tense: Positive
              Simple Present Tense: Negative
Subject-Verb Agreement and Prepositional Phrases  
Simple Past Tense    
              Regular Action Verbs
              Irregular Action Verbs      
be Verb         
Present Progressive (Continuous) Tense
Simple Present vs. Present Progressive
Past Progressive (Continuous) Tense
Nonprogressive Verbs
Present Perfect Tense
Past Perfect Tense
Future Time Reference
Summary Chart of Verb Forms and Their Uses

Introduction to Modals:  What is a Modal?
Uses and Forms of Modals
Troublesome and Frequently Misused Verbs:
             got, have
             fell, felt
             going to, “gonna”
             say, tell

Chapter 4    Adjectives and Adverbs

Introduction to Adjectives: What Is an Adjective?

Adjectives in Noun Phrases  
Descriptive Adjectives
Nouns that Function as Adjectives
Possessive Adjectives
Demonstrative Adjectives
Comparative and Superlative Forms of Adjectives
Adjective (Relative) Clauses

Introduction to Adverbs: What is an adverb? 
Adverbs as Intensifiers       
Comparative and Superlative Forms of Adverbs

Chapter 5    Possessives

Introduction to Possessives: What is a possessive?   

What Is a Possessive Noun?
How to Form a Possessive Noun
Possessive Pronouns
Possessive Adjectives
Commonly Confused
              Plurals and Possessives
              you’re, you/, he’s his/ it’s its/ they’re, their, there/ who’s, whose

Chapter 6    Prepositions
Introduction to Prepositions: What Is a preposition?

Separable and Non-Separable Phrasal Verbs
              Separable Phrasal Verbs 
              Non-Separable Phrasal Verbs
Transitive Verbs and Prepositions      
Transitive Verbs That Require a Preposition When the Object Is Stated
Transitive Verbs That Do Not Take a Preposition
Two Objects: Direct and Indirect
Commonly Confused
              believe in, believe (that)
              think about, think (that) 
Modals and Prepositions       

Chapter 7    Sentence Structure

Introduction to Sentence Structure:  What Is Sentence Structure?
Basics of Sentence Structure
Three Basic Sentence Structures
              The Simple Sentence
               The Compound Sentence
The Complex Sentence 
The Subject Positions
               The Basics     
               Faulty Double Subjects  
 The Verb Position 
There is, there are
 Commonly Confused:  they are, there are 
Joining Ideas with and and or
Parallel Structure
Adverbs of Frequency
                 The Basics
Using a Negative Adverb to Begin a Sentence
Dependent Clauses and Word Order
Run-On Sentences
Making a Comparison: the more ~, the less ~  

Chapter 8    Questions

Introduction to Questions

Punctuating a Question 
              Punctuating a Standard Question
              Punctuating a Question in Quoted Speech
              Punctuating a Question in Reported Speech
Auxiliaries (Helping Verbs)   
Sentence Structure of an Information Question
              When the Main Verb Is An Action Verb
              When the Main Verb Is be, and the Verb Tense Is Simple Present or Simple Past 
Sentence Structure of a Yes/No Question   
              When the Main Verb Is an Action Verb 
              When the Main Verb Is be and the Verb Tense Is Simple Present  or Simple Past Tense
Negative Questions
Beginning a Question with Who
              When the Answer Is the Subject of the Verb
              When The Answer Is the Object of the Verb or Preposition

Chapter 9    Punctuation

Introduction to Punctuation

Sentence Structure and Its Relationship to Punctuation
Commas in Compound Sentences
              What Is a Compound Sentence?
              Use of Commas in a Compound Sentence
Commas with a List of Objects
Punctuating the Complex Sentence
Fragments: Introduction
Fragments and Compound Sentences
Fragments and Complex Sentences
               Conversational English vs. Written English
              Fragments Beginning with… when, because, before and after, although, but,
sing but and although together    
Review of Punctuation of Subordinate Clauses
Run-ons That Contains however
Commas and Noun Clauses
PPunctuating a Sentence with an Adjective Clause:
              Restrictive and Non-restrictive Adjective Clauses  
Punctuation of Questions   br> PPunctuation of Quoted Speech and Indirect Speech Questions
              Punctuation of Quoted Speech Questions
              Punctuation of Indirect Speech Questions
              Proper Nouns
     Quoted Speech
     Indirect Speech 
              Names of Books, Short Stories, etc. 

Chapter 10  Gerunds and Infinitive Phrases


Position of Gerunds and Infinitives in a Sentence
Gerunds and Infinitives as Object of the Sentence 
Sentence Combining:  Turning a Subordinate Clause into a Gerund

Chapter 11  Passive and Active Voice


When Passive Voice Can Be Used
How to Form Passive Voice
Passive Voice Chart for Each Verb Tense
The Past Participle (3rd Part of a Verb)
Adjectives Derived from Passive Voice

Chapter 12  Conditional Sentences


Overview of the 3 Conditionals
Punctuation of Conditional Sentences
              1st Conditional
              2nd Conditional
              3rd Conditional

Chapter 13  Indirect Speech and Thought


Components of Indirect Speech and Thought
              Change of Punctuation
              Change of Pronouns  
              Change of Verb Tenses  
Sequence of Tenses (“back-shift”)   br> Sentence Structure of Indirect Speech  
Quick Verb Tense Chart for Sequence of Tenses in Noun Clauses 
say vs. tell   

Chapter 14  Spelling


Simple Present Tense Verbs:  3rd Person Singular 
~ing Forms
Simple Past Tense Verbs 
Adjectives: Comparative and Superlative Forms

Chapter 15  Word Forms

time, times, some time, sometimes
real, really, very
other, others, another

Chapter 16    M i x E d  Bag

Chapter 17  British and Canadian Grammar and Spelling

Answer Key